What happened when Caesar crossed the Rubicon

Caesar crossed the Rubicon with the immortal phrase: Let the die be cast.

Pompey and many senators fled south, believing that Caesar was marching quickly for Rome. Caesar paused and opened negotiations, but they were not successful. Caesar continued to advance to force a conference with Pompey.

Pompey withdrew to Brundisium and was able to escape to Greece. Caesar stayed near Rome for about two weeks and then left Lepidus in charge of Italy while he attacked Pompey’s Spanish provinces. He defeated two of Pompey’s legates at the Battle of Ilerda and forced the surrender of the third; he then sent forces to north Africa. He return to Rome in the autumn and was elected Dictator; he resigned the dictatorship after 11 days and followed Pompey to Greece. He besieged Pompey at Dyrrhachium, but Pompey was able to break out and escape. Caesar followed Homey and engaged and decisively defeated him at Pharsalus on 9 August 48 BC. Pompey then fled for Egypt but he was killed when he arrived in Alexandria. Caesar arrived in Egypt. There were still enemies to face but Caesar’s main opponent, Pompey, was no longer a threat.